The Technical Program Committee is pleased to announce nine Tutorial Sessions that will be presented on Monday, September 19, 2005. The range of topics and rich opportunity for technical instruction and interchange in focused settings with experts in these fields will greatly enhance your conference experience. You can select from three full-day ($300 USD) and seven half-day ($150 USD) tutorials, with deeply discounted rates for students ($75/$50 USD). Subjects include Signal Processing, Geodesy, Systems Engineering, AUV Technology, Acoustic Seabed Classification, Optical and Acoustic Sensors at the Seafloor, Dynamics of UUVs, Subsurface Waves, and Well-Defined Requirements. Also see the information about the Special Workshop on Government Relations 101 for a special perspective of the inner-workings of Washington, D.C. Detailed descriptions and biographies of the presenters are provided below. Sign up early to guarantee your seat through the Conference Registration form.
8:30 AM - 4:30 PM (Room: 8212)
James V. Candy, University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
In this short course, we teach basic concepts in model-based signal processing using an applied approach. With the sophisticated model-based processing software package, SSPACK_PC, a third party toolbox in MATLAB, participants are exposed to many simulation examples to reinforce the theoretical concepts introduced during the lectures. The student is assumed to have basic knowledge in linear systems, probability and random processes. Only a brief overview of these subjects will be presented. The course is designed to take the participant from basic probability and random processes to stochastic model development through the heart of physics-based stochastic modeling – the Gauss-Markov state-space model. Estimation basics will be discussed including maximum likelihood and maximum a-posteriori estimators. The state-space model-based processor (MBP) or equivalent Kalman filter will be investigated theoretically in order to develop an intuition for constructing successful MBP designs using the “minimum error variance approach.” Practical aspects of the MBP will be developed to provide a reasonable approach (available in SSPACK_PC) for design and analysis. Overall MBP Design Methodology will be discussed. Extensions of the MBP follow for a variety of cases, including prediction, colored noise, identification, and linearized and nonlinear filtering using the extended Kalman filter. Applications and case studies will be discussed throughout the lectures, including the tracking problem along with an application suite of MBP problems. Practical aspects of MBP design using SSPACK_PC will be discussed for “tuning” and processing along with some actual data. In summary, this course not only provides the participants with the essential theory underlying model-based signal processing techniques, but applied design and analysis as well.
MODELING & SIMULATION
MODEL-BASED PROCESSING (KALMAN FILTERING)
MODEL-BASED PROCESSING EXTENSIONS
James V. Candy is the Chief Scientist for Engineering and Director of the Center for Advanced Signal & Image Sciences at the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Dr. Candy received a commission in the USAF in 1967 and was a Systems Engineer/Test Director from 1967 to 1971. He has been a Researcher at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory since 1976, holding various positions, including that of Project Engineer for Signal Processing and Thrust Area Leader for Signal and Control Engineering. Educationally, he received his B.S.E.E. degree from the University of Cincinnati and his M.S.E. and Ph.D. degrees in Electrical Engineering from the University of Florida, Gainesville. He is a registered Control System Engineer in the state of California. He has been an Adjunct Professor at San Francisco State University, University of Santa Clara, and UC Berkeley, extension teaching graduate courses in signal and image processing. Dr. Candy is a Fellow of the IEEE and a Fellow of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA) as well as a member of Eta Kappa Nu and Phi Kappa Phi honorary societies. He was elected as a Distinguished Alumnus by the University of Cincinnati in 2000 and was awarded the 2002 Distinguished Technical Achievement Award for contributions to the development of “model-based ocean acoustic signal processing” by the IEEE/OES. He has published over 200 journal articles, book chapters, and technical reports, as well as written two texts in signal processing, "Signal Processing: the Model-Based Approach," (McGraw-Hill,1986) and "Signal Processing: the Modern Approach," (McGraw-Hill,1988), and is currently writing a third entitled “Model-Based Signal Processing,” slated for publication by John Wiley in 2004. He has presented short courses sponsored by the IEEE in Applied Signal Processing and more recently Model-Based Ocean Acoustic Signal Processing and Modern Spectral Estimation Techniques in DSP for IEEE Oceans Society, ASA in Applied Digital Signal Processing and Advanced DSP Techniques. He is currently the IEEE Chair of the Administrative Committee on "Sonar Signal and Image Processing" and also the past-Chair of the ASA Technical Committee on "Signal Processing in Acoustics," as well as being an Associate Editor for Signal Processing of ASA (online). His research interests include estimation, identification, spatial estimation, signal and image processing, array signal processing, tomography, time-reversal signal processing, ocean acoustic and biomedical applications.
8:30 AM - 4:30 PM (Room: 8216)
“What can happen when a GPS survey does NOT close and/or it fails to provide expected good results?”
With the availability of GPS as the most powerful surveying technique, users with new innovative applications are increasing. To improve and optimize the surveys and results, understanding the basics and fundamentals of geodesy is very important. Knowing the correct definitions, terms and terminology, the fine distinctions between different geodetic products, which users inevitably have to use in their GPS surveying, will be an asset to obtain the best possible results.
This specially designed workshop will provide and explain the most important, critical, and vital geodetic information, which makes a GPS survey successful. Examples of topics and issues are the Earth’s geodetic shapes, its size, Terrestrial Reference Frame (TRF), 2-D horizontal datums, 3-D geodetic systems, 4-D geodesy, gravitational models, gravity, geoid, Mean Sea Level, types of heights, World Geodetic System (WGS) 84, vertical datums, and World Height System (WHS), units of length, absolute and relative positioning, precision, absolute and relative accuracy, marine positioning, tidal datums, DTED, projections, grids, and grid systems, and datum transformations.
In addition, strengths and limitations about definitions and accuracy of many products in use worldwide will be explained. Many such details are not available in textbooks and/or through college courses. In many cases, such information is “hidden.”
This workshop has been designed to explain the progression of new ideas, concepts, algorithms, methods, and principles, and to simplify the geodetic complexities for better understanding of the GPS positioning and achievable accuracy. They will then be able to get a correct evaluation and have confidence of their results.
Question and Answer session will be included to answer participants' specific queries and to suggest newer ideas and approaches for obtaining correct and accurate results.
Workshop is for surveyors, hydrographers, engineers, navigators, military personnel, GIS professional, managers, survey and GIS educators, and geoscientists who want to get the best possible results from GPS.
Dr. Muneendra Kumar earned his M.S. degree in mathematics in India. He got his M.S. and Ph.D. in geodetic sciences from The Ohio State University, USA. In his latest research, Dr. Kumar has perfected the “Kumar Mapping (Kmap) System” as the biggest breakthrough in mapping and charting. Dr. Kumar worked for 12 years with the Survey of India, two years with the Directorate of Military Survey, India, five years with U.S. National Geodetic Survey, and 22 years as Chief Geodesist with U.S. National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. He has been U.S. Consultant to 100 plus countries in Africa, Asia, Central and South America, Pacific Ocean, and East Europe, and Special Geodetic Advisor to the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization. Dr. Kumar is Fellow of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and Marine Technology Society (MTS). He has occupied the U.S. Chief of Navy's Research Chair for geodesy at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. He has chaired the IAG Special Commission on Marine Positioning and Special Study Group on seafloor positioning, and the American Congress on Surveying and Mapping Marine Survey Committee. He is the current chair of the MTS Marine Geodesy Committee and Founder and Director of the International Symposia on Marine Positioning (INSMAP). Dr. Kumar has numerous presentations, publications, technical workshops and seminars to his credit. He participated in defining the World Geodetic System (WGS) 1984, developed its implementation plan, and researched for its accuracy enhancement. For this, he is known as Dr. or Senor "WGS84". He has contributed on the development of geodetic standards for the UN/FAO, IHO, NATO, ICAO, and PAIGH. After a 50-year scientific and professional career, Dr. Kumar retired on 2 January 2004. However, he is actively consulting and developing new geodetic concepts and solutions.
Francis W. Derby is Associate Professor of Surveying and Geographic Information Systems at Penn State University, Wilkes-Barre campus. He holds a B.S. degree in surveying and mapping sciences from the University of East London and a Ph.D. from the University of Florida. Dr. Derby has extensive international experience in surveying and land information systems. He has worked as land surveyor in England, South America, and the Caribbean. He has also served as a consultant to the World Bank and Commonwealth Secretariat of Great Britain, under the Commonwealth Fund for Technical Cooperation. He has delivered several workshops in surveying and GIS.
8:30 AM - 12:00 PM (Room: Room 8219)
Sean M. Kery, Oceaneering International
This tutorial is on "Systems Engineering with Wave, Wind and Current Data" and is based on my 20 years of experience with the design and ocean field testing of a wide range of different types of systems. The Tutorial will begin with the introduction of case studies. I have 7 to 10 that cover ROV's, buoy moorings, AUV's, ship motions studies and launch and recovery systems design. In this introductory section, I propose to show the specifications and/or the actual operating parameters and how they affect the design. From there, I propose section two, to briefly show the different sources of wave data and the critical differences in validity and applicability between them. A short section on wind and ocean currents data will follow. Section three will cover application of the data, based on how the ocean will actually act on a given system. This includes the effects of depths on wave climate to include both seas and swells. Swells are often overlooked in typical analyses, but can cause catastrophic motions in the actual design. I will illustrate a method by which the joint probability of occurrence for seas and swells as a function of H1/3 and modal period can be developed for a specific project scenario. I will show when it is and is not correct to use statistical methods to extrapolate worst cases for design. Experience has shown that these simple methods are often used to predict results that are so far beyond the underlying assumptions of the technique that the results are meaningless. I will touch on Morrisons Equation and the Keuligan Carpenter Number and the limits of applicability. Some systems are very sensitive to the mass terms, but not the drag terms, and vice versa. I then propose to briefly describe the range of modeling methods in existence and their range of applicability. These will include Linear theory modeling with RAO's, Large Amplitude Modeling, and Fatigue life prediction modeling. The last and final part will show some high level results that are applicable to a wide range of projects and then tie them back to the case studies. This will end with tying each case study to what the environmental requirements should have said if they were to accurately address the requirements.
Mr. Kery has worked in Ocean engineering for 20 years, on a wide range of buoy mooring, ROV AUV and Manned Submersible projects. He holds a PE license in Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering. Education: BS Mechanical and Ocean Engineering, URI 1985, MS Systems Engineering, Johns Hopkins University. Mr. Kery is married with 4 children and lives in Southern Maryland. Experience includes: Oceaneering, 2002 to present; Northrop Grumman Oceanic System Division, 1996 to 2002; Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Ocean Systems and Moorings Lab, 1985 thru 1996.
8:30 AM - 12:00 PM (Room: 8222)
William J. Kirkwood, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI)
AUV Application Basics is a short course that provides an overview of AUV technology and operations. The objective is to provide an overview of what available AUV systems provide and the best practices for their use. The class is targeted at scientists interested in using AUVs for oceanographic applications. The attendee will gain basic understanding of AUV types, technologies, and navigation techniques, including discussion of the comparative strengths of AUVs and alternative methods of data collection. The attendee will also be provided an understanding of tradeoffs in AUV operations, including power estimation, endurance considerations, and mission structure to acquire the desired data sets. Key points are illustrated by applications and results from the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute's (MBARI) Dorado AUV and other AUV operations. Topics include: Basic AUV technology, AUV at-sea Operation, Payload Considerations, Mission Planning, Upper and Mid-Water AUV missions, Benthic and Mapping AUV missions, Data Collection and Reduction, AUV Integration into Sampling Networks, and a look at coming AUV advances.
This class is intended for scientists interested in applying AUVs to particular problems, persons interested in AUV applications and the impact of AUV technology, and graduates in oceanographic fields seeking a broader understanding about the application of AUV platforms.
Mr. William J. Kirkwood has been Associate Director of Engineering at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) for the past 5 years and has been with MBARI for 14 years. Bill is also the Dorado AUV development Program Manager and Project Manager for the Atlantic Layer Tracking Experiment (ALTEX) AUV, which was deployed for engineering tests above Svalbard, Norway in 2001. Bill is also Project Manager on development of MBARI's deep in-situ laser Raman system and associated positioning system. Previously, Bill was the Lead Mechanical Engineer and Project Manager for MBARI's in-house science specific remotely operated vehicle development, Tiburon. Before joining MBARI, Bill was a Group Supervisor at Lockheed Missiles and Space Systems, Advanced Systems Division working on mine counter measures, precision navigation, and active optics for high energy laser systems. Bill has a Masters of Science degree in Computer Information Systems from the University of Phoenix and Bachelors of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of California Los Angeles.
8:30 AM - 12:00 PM (Room: 8226)
Jon M. Preston, Quester Tangent Corporation
Acoustic seabed classification is the organization of the sea floor and shallow subsurface sediment into discrete classes based on information in the echoes. Geoacoustic sediment properties such as grain size and porosity are not available from acoustic backscatter alone, but the survey area can be segmented into regions of similar acoustic character. Systematically exploiting details in backscatter is the basis of acoustic segmentation. This tutorial presents theory and applications of image-based acoustic classification, from the early papers through to recent applications. The acoustic principles of classifying with echoes from single beams at normal incidence are presented first, since they relate to the principles of image classification. Near nadir, the amplitudes and shapes of sounder echoes are rich in sediment information. Away from vertical incidence, echoes carry sediment information in their amplitudes and their noise characteristics, but not in their shapes. Echoes from imaging sonars, with their wide horizontal bandwidths, become rasters in sonar images, so noise in these echoes becomes image texture. Macro-roughness such as sand waves and changes in sediment also contribute to texture. Image amplitude and texture are both heavily influenced by sediment type and are exploited for segmentation. Sonar calibration is not necessary for image-based acoustic classification. Image amplitudes are made consistent throughout a survey, but remain in relative, not absolute, units. Since calibrating imaging sonars is challenging, the ability to use systems that need only be consistent offers cost-effective practical classification for military and civil purposes.
The techniques presented in this tutorial are wide ranging, and do not concentrate on a selected technical approach. In the last hour, hands-on experience with classification software suites will reinforce the tutorial material. Participants are invited to bring their own laptops for this part of the tutorial, and would be able to continue classifying data sets after the session has ended. Through this combination of theory and experience, participants in this tutorial can expect to gain a thorough understanding of principles and practice of image-based sediment classification.
Jon Preston (PhD, University of British Columbia) is Senior Scientist at Quester Tangent Corporation, Sidney, BC, and an adjunct professor at the University of Victoria. In his seven years at QTC, he has lead the development of software suites for rigorous statistical classification of multibeam and sidescan images, interpolation and visualization of acoustic classes, and automated objective clustering through simulated annealing.
1:00 PM - 4:30 PM (Room: 8219)
Anders Tengberg, Goteborg University
In the coastal environment, processes taking place at the boundary between the sediment and the overlying water are of crucial importance to the local environmental conditions. The combination of “traditional sensors” (e.g. Conductivity, Temperature and Depth), acoustic instrumentation (profiling and single point current meters), optical sensors (single point oxygen optodes, planar optodes and turbidity sensors) and autonomous experimental equipment (bottom landers) has opened new possibilities to investigate and understand the ongoing processes. In this tutorial, the combined use of instrumentation will be demonstrated with an example from ongoing investigations in the heavily eutrophicated (over-fertilized) Gulf of Finland in the Baltic Sea. Why it is important to combine different measuring techniques and the additional information that can be gained by doing so will be presented. The importance of measuring over longer time periods than just a few days will be demonstrated. Technical aspects and difficulties of combining different techniques without compromising on data quality (e.g. how to maintain instrumental calibrations over longer time periods) will also be discussed.
This tutorial will demonstrate some of the different techniques in use in the above mentioned project including:
PROPOSED LITERATURE TO BE HANDED OUT:
Anders Tengberg Assistant professor, firstname.lastname@example.org
1:00 PM - 4:30 PM (Room: 8222)
Douglas E. Humphreys, Vehicle Control Technologies, Inc.
This seminar will emphasize the practical aspects of hydrodynamics, dynamics and control of undersea vehicles. The objective is to provide a brief survey of the current modeling methodology and then present a detailed treatment of undersea vehicle dynamics. Attendees will come away with a better understanding of the concepts used in modeling and simulation of undersea vehicles. Approaches for estimating coefficients for hull, fins and fin-hull combinations will be covered. The use of Bode plots and root locus to gain insight into vehicle design trends will be demonstrated. The tradeoff between stability, control, and steadiness will be discussed along with design examples. Several examples of in-water dynamic performance comparisons between data and simulation will be shown. In addition to handouts of the presentation slides, each attendee will receive a comprehensive bibliography covering the subject area.
Dr. Douglas E. Humphreys received his B.S. degree in Aerospace Engineering (1966) and his Ph.D. degree in Mechanical Engineering from North Carolina State University (1971). From 1971 to 1980, he was employed at the Naval Costal Systems Center (currently CSS), Panama City, Florida. While at CSS, he pioneered the development of techniques for predicting underwater vehicle hydrodynamic coefficients and produced a design and analysis system that integrated the processes for vehicle performance, stability, guidance and control. He has designed or analyzed over 265 vehicles using these techniques. From 1978 to 1980, he was Chairman of the Naval Sea Systems Command Hydrodynamics Committee (SEAHAC). From 1981 to 1993, he was employed by ARAP Group of the Titan Corporation as head of the vehicle performance, stability and control group. Since 1994, he has been President and Senior Design Engineer at Vehicle Control Technologies, Inc. Dr. Humphreys remains active as a vehicle designer, having worked on twenty-two vehicles in the past year, with eight vehicles undergoing at sea T&E and validation.
1:00 PM - 4:30 PM (Room: 8226)
For wave measurement, bottom mounted sensors represent an attractive alternative to surface buoys because they are easier to protect from the hazards of surface vessels, rough weather and vandalism. While still prone to excessive fishing activity, bottom mounted systems generally survive longer than surface systems and are typically more cost effective. Historically, bottom mounted systems could generally not resolve the shorter waves and were often considered to provide second-rate directional wave measurements.
Over the last 10 years, the qualities of subsurface measurements have improved due to the development of techniques that use acoustic signals as the basic sensing technology. As a consequence, subsurface systems are substantially more capable of making accurate wave height and direction measurements and are seeing an unprecedented revival. This tutorial will examine the principles of subsurface directional wave measurements and discuss in some detail the possibilities and limitations of these systems.
The tutorial will cover the following topics:
The tutorial will provide scientists, engineers and program managers the background they will need to make educated decisions when planning, installing and utilizing a variety of wave measurement systems. State-of-the-art in wave measurements programs will be highlighted and a select group of invited speakers will share their experiences. Participant discussions are encouraged.
Atle Lohrmann holds a M.Sc. in physical oceanography and has worked with acoustic Doppler systems as a development and application engineer for the last 15 years. He has been involved in developing and testing wave systems from all three Doppler manufacturers making such systems. Over the last few years, his interest has centred on improving subsurface wave measurement techniques by applying acoustics to detect the surface position. He has worked with scientists and engineers worldwide using these principles for wave data collection and analyses.
Torstein Pedersen holds an M.Sc. in ocean engineering and is a graduate of the University of Rhode Island. Torstein joined Nortek AS in June 2001. Since this time, he as been a key player in the wave measurement efforts at Nortek. His focus includes on wave measurements employing the PUV type of sensors as well as the more advanced current profiler instruments. He has been directly involved in the improvements to the standard Doppler approaches as well as the next generation of technology which includes acoustic surface tracking and SUV directional methods. His attention includes overseeing system evaluation tests, algorithm development, and consults regularly on wave measurement programs around the world.
1:00 PM - 4:30 PM (Room: 8228)
As information technology (IT) becomes more integral in how hydrographic and oceanographic organizations achieve their mission, the risk associated with poorly designed and implemented IT solutions become greater. Reducing that risk starts by defining and managing a robust set of requirements to specify functional, information, interface, performance, and operational characteristics of the IT solution. Whether the solution is custom software, built specifically to satisfy the requirements, or Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) product(s) or a combination of the two in an integrated system, if the requirements do not accurately reflect what the implemented system has to do, then the user will justifiably not be satisfied with the operational solution. At best, the new system will be revised and modified in an ongoing attempt to make it satisfy user needs, and at worst, it will be discarded with the resulting waste of organizational enthusiasm, time and resources. Doing a good job of defining requirements can avoid both of these situations.
Escalating system development costs and elongated schedules occur when “fuzzy logic” typifies the developer/end-user communications during the requirements process. Clarification of requirements during elicitation produces more certainty about the meaning of the stated requirements among all participants, early in the project life cycle. Using techniques that encourage systematic user involvement, define and adopt dynamic project specific standards, and make process implementation improvements helps achieve this goal.
This Tutorial will focus on the requirements elicitation process. It will present participants with standards for well formed requirements, techniques for eliciting requirements from domain experts and several formats for requirements documentation. The Tutorial is highly interactive with limited lecture and extensive hands on workshop and exercises where participants get to experience the requirements elicitation process.
This Tutorial is based, in part, on CrossTalk article: Better Communication Through Better Requirements, April, 2004.
Michael J. Hillelsohn is a Director, Product Assurance at Software Performance Systems (SPS) in Falls Church, VA. SPS provides support to public sector clients in developing, integrating and implementing mission critical systems. SPS also builds secure e-commerce, case management, and network solutions for government and industry. Mr. Hillelsohn is a certified quality professional with more than thirty five years of experience doing development, management and performance improvement in software and systems development environments. He is a frequent presenter at international conferences on system engineering and quality management systems. He leads the product assurance effort on a NOAA project to define, acquire and integrate a nautical charting system and has first hand experience with the issues being presented.
Randolph E. Barlow is a Technical Director at Software Performance Systems (SPS) in Falls Church, VA. Mr. Barlow has over twenty years of Information Systems experience, including full life cycle management, design, implementation, and deployment. He leads major project efforts in requirements analysis, software and hardware evaluation, COTS system customization and implementation, data/system migration, and multiple site deployment and operations for government clients. He currently leads the integration team that has conducted the requirements analysis, and subsequent trade study, for a new nautical charting system for NOAA.